In line with the directive from our President with respect to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) compulsory national lockdown period, Central Flying Academy is suspending all flight training activities, effective 26 March 2020. Normal flight training activities are expected to resume on Friday, 17 April 2020.

During this time, we plan to attend to all administrative functions as per normal. Selected students may be contacted by their instructors for online briefings via Zoom.

We thank you for your patience and understanding. Our thoughts and best wishes go out to you and your families during this challenging time.



Link to Official COVID-19 website as required by regulations imposed on all .za websites in Government Gazette 43164

Carburetor Icing

THERE’S A QUICK FIX FOR THIS UNEXPECTED VISITOR

BY JERRY L. ROBINSON

When you apply carburetor heat to melt ice that has formed in the throat, or venturi, of the carburetor, you may notice that the engine begins to run even rougher. This happens because the fuel mixture, already enriched because the ice is choking off some of the induction air flow, is suddenly made even richer by the addition of hot air.

This triple whammy can make the mixture so fuel-rich it will not ignite in the cylinders. The solution is to lean the mixture (and sometimes it takes some pretty radical leaning) and get a burnable mixture going to the cylinders.

Let’s review some carburetor basics. Airflow through the carburetor venturi results in a pressure drop that draws fuel from the float chamber. The mixture control can vary the amount of fuel supplied for a given amount of air. Opening or closing the throttle actually changes the amount of air flow, and the carburetor automatically supplies (more or less) the correct amount of fuel to mix with that amount of air.

Carb ice forms because the pressure drop in the venturi causes the air to “cool,” and draw heat away from the surrounding metal of the carburetor venturi. Ice then can begin collecting on the cooled carburetor throat. This is the same principle that makes your refrigerator or air conditioner work. 

Meanwhile, fuel being drawn through the fuel discharge nozzle into the airflow atomizes into very fine droplets that evaporate easily. When the fuel changes from a finely atomized liquid to a vapor it, too, cools—stripping more heat from the surrounding metal.

The result is that the carburetor’s internal temperature may drop below freezing, even on a warm day. If the ambient air contains sufficient moisture (which can be the case even in seemingly dry air), frost (carburetor ice) can form on the inside of the carburetor.

It’s important to understand that carburetor ice results not from a decrease in airflow through the carburetor, but the change in pressure caused by the restriction in the venturi.

The carburetor operates according to Bernoulli’s principle. This principle states, in essence, that the static pressure of a non-compressible gas varies inversely with the velocity of the gas as it flows through a tube of varying cross-section. (Due to the laws of the conservation of energy, total pressure remains constant, and because total pressure is equal to static pressure plus dynamic pressure, then dynamic pressure must increase.)

Static pressure decreases as a result of the increase of the velocity of the air flow, not as a result of the change in the mass of air flowing through the tube.

Each time a normally aspirated, four-cycle engine (which describes the engines in most trainers and simple four-place aircraft) completes two crankshaft revolutions, it draws a volume of air equal to the engine’s displacement (less small losses because of throttle position and system friction) through the carburetor. Given a constant throttle position, this volume essentially remains the same whether the carburetor is wide open or clogged with ice.If the carburetor venturi is constricted because of ice, the velocity of the flow must increase because the amount of air flowing to the cylinders is constant. This increase in velocity is much more significant than the small decrease in mass flow caused by the restriction in the venturi because of ice.

An increase in velocity, Bernoulli says, will cause a further decrease in static pressure within the venturi, which means the ambient static pressure acting on the fuel in the float bowl will push more fuel through the metering jet, resulting in a richer mixture.

In most cases, pilots can get rid of accumulations of carburetor ice by using carb heat. Nothing more is necessary. This proves that the system works as designed—warming the carburetor venturi and body—especially if we are conscientious in applying carb heat before reducing power.

Also, many of today’s training airplanes use Lycoming engines, which mount the carburetor on the oil sump. This gives the carburetor another source of heat. Because of this, Lycoming engines seem to be less susceptible to carb ice.

Rarely do engines quit when you apply carburetor heat, so pilots have trouble accepting that it can happen. I was an unbelieving pilot until the engines in two different airplanes stopped on me in the same week. I was able to get the engines running again because I remembered to pull the mixture almost to idle cut-off in both cases. The engines generated enough heat to melt the ice.

Having adequate heat to melt ice becomes a real problem during prolonged low-power operations because the engine just isn’t generating enough heat in the system. There are several partial solutions to this problem.

First, apply carb heat well before you reduce power. This preheats the carburetor and keeps ice from forming in the first place. If you do this when descending from altitude and in the landing pattern, you can push carb heat off on short final, so you won’t have to worry about it in the event of a go-around.

Second, if you need to make a prolonged, low-power descent, “clear” the engine periodically by applying power, heating up the carb heat system, and burning out any ice that may have accumulated.

Finally, if applying carb heat results in loss of power, or even in significant “roughening” of the engine, you must immediately open the throttle and pull the mixture control out far enough to smooth out the engine. As the ice melts, restore the mixture gradually to the original position.

Source: https://www.aopa.org/training-and-safety/students/presolo/skills/carburetor-icing


Melting Moments: Understanding Carburettor Icing

ATSB’s air safety investigator, Mike Watson, in his unique style, discusses the insidious dangers of carburettor icing.

The aircraft was on short final for runway 29L when the pilot made a brief Mayday call. The aircraft was then observed to land in a car-yard, short of the runway. Both occupants managed to evacuate without injury.

The pilot later reported that the engine did not respond when an increase in RPM was required, as the aircraft was undershooting the approach. The aircraft subsequently collided with a fence, short of the runway.

Weather conditions at the time were conducive to severe carburettor icing at descent power. It is likely that carburettor icing occurred during the low power descent and precluded the engine accelerating above idle power on the final approach.

If I were to stuff a gag forcibly down your throat, you would not be able to get air into your lungs, and after quite a short time, your body would stop working. The same is true of aircraft engines: if I were to block their air intakes, they would also stop working.

The easiest way to block an engines air intake is to freeze water and simply choke the engine, so that it can no longer breathe.

Can this happen to my aircraft? Yes. Let us look at how water can find its way into the air intake when we least expect it. To do so, we need to examine how water is carried in the atmosphere and how it can choke a carburettor.

Water is dissolved in the air that both we and our engines breathe, in much the same way as sugar can be dissolved into a cup of tea. It is much easier to dissolve sugar into a hot cup of tea than a cold cuppa, and likewise it is easier to dissolve more water in warm air than into cold air. Water that has been dissolved into the atmosphere is actually a gas that you cannot see, and it is always present in the atmosphere.

Let us take a hot cup of tea, stir in as much sugar as we can, and then put the cup in the fridge. Once the tea has chilled, you will see that some of the sugar is no longer dissolved in the tea, but has formed crystals of sugar in the cup.

In the same way, if you take a cup of warm, humid air, (lots of water dissolved in it), and cool it, you will see that some of the water that was dissolved in the air as a gas will change back into a liquid. Normally, this can be seen is as tiny droplets like those found in a cloud. Many clouds are formed in exactly this way: as humid air rises and cools, it cannot hold all its dissolved water, and some of the water condenses into a cumulus-type cloud.

How will this affect the engine in your aircraft? When air passes through the carburettor on the way to the engine, fuel is evaporated into the carburettor. This chills the air, in just the same way as evaporating water chills a swimmer leaving the ocean for the beach. If this chilled air was previously humid, then some of the water dissolved in the air will immediately change into cloud-type water droplets. If the chilling effect of the fuel was sufficient to cool the carburettor below freezing level, then when these water droplets hit the sides of the venturi (the part where the air passes through), or the throttle valve, the water droplets will freeze in place. This will start the process of choking the engine. Eventually, if the process is allowed to continue, it will no longer be able to breathe, and the engine will stop.

The problem will be more pronounced if the engine is operating at a low power setting. In this case, the airflow through the carburettor will be partially impeded by the throttle valve. This valve not only provides more area for the ice to form: it also increases the partial vacuum downstream of the valve, and that will cause a further chilling of the air and the water droplets.

It is interesting to note that although fuel does act as a refrigerant in a carburettor, it is also needed to keep the engine running. When your aircraft is flying in cruise, the engine should normally be leaned with the mixture control. If this is not done, then not only are you using more fuel than you need to, but you are also putting more refrigerant into to the carburettor airflow, thus increasing the likelihood of carburettor icing. This is yet another good reason for using correct procedures when controlling the engine!

Even at temperatures exceeding 25 degrees Celsius, air passing through a carburettor may form ice that can choke your engine. The more humid the air in which your aircraft is flying, the more likely it is that ice will form in the air-intake system.

Following a normal climb, the pilot dropped two parachutists over Hamilton Island. A power-off descent to circuit height followed. The pilot did not select carburettor heat during the descent. When on a long final approach, the pilot attempted to arrest a high descent rate with the use of engine power. The engine failed to respond. The pilot found that the aircraft was outside gliding range of the runway. Engine trouble checks failed to restore power to the engine. The aircraft was ditched in shallow water and after a successful escape from the cabin, the pilot was picked up by an island launch.

Bureau of Meteorology data showed that the relative humidity at ground level was 65 per cent. A carburettor icing-probability chart showed that serious icing at descent power was to be expected at such a humidity level.

How do I recognise the start of this problem? The best solution is to be on the lookout for carburettor icing at any time the air temperature is less than 30 degrees Celsius. If an engine is being choked by ice, then its power will be reduced. However, this is not always easy to detect in the early stages, particularly if the engine is operating at reduced power settings or if the air is humid.

Application of carburettor heat for a short time will melt any ice, and when the carburettor heat is turned off again, you will see an increase in engine power for the same throttle setting. If this happens, then apply the carburettor heat, and leave it on!

Textron Lycoming, the engine manufacturer, point out that a pilot should expect a delay of 30 seconds to several minutes while ice is melted after carburettor heat is applied. During this time, rough running and a further reduction in power can be expected. It is much better to experience a small reduction in power because of the application of carburettor heat, than to experience a large reduction in power because of the engine being throttled by ice!

If you are flying a carburetted engine with a constant speed propeller, such as a Cessna 180 or 182, then you will not detect the onset of carburettor icing by a change in RPM. The manifold air pressure (MAP) is measured between the carburettor and the engine air inlets, so if the inlet is being blocked by ice and the engine is still trying to suck-in air, there will be an increased vacuum in the inlet manifold. This can be seen as a decrease in the manifold air pressure indication, when there is no other good reason for it happening.

Its a bit like your lungs being the engine, your lips the carburettor, and your cheeks the manifold air pressure gauge. If you breathe normally through your mouth past your lips, the air pressure in your mouth is nearly the same as atmospheric pressure. As an analogy, think of when your friendly neighbourhood murderer sneaks up behind you, and puts his hand over your lips in an attempt to suffocate you. He is doing the same to you as the block of ice in the carburettor is to the engine. There will be a significant vacuum in your mouth, (sucking in of the cheeks) as you desperately try to suck in your last breath, like your aeroplanes engine desperately trying to suck in the air it needs past the ice blockage to the carburettor.

Carburettor icing can sneak up on you when you are cruising along. In my case, Ive found that can happen as dusk approaches, and the air cools, making the atmosphere more humid. Its always worth carefully setting the correct power setting, and noting it, so that if the RPM or the MAP starts to slowly reduce, and there’s no other good reason for it, like climbing, then you can immediately suspect icing and do something about it. Its best to keep an eye out for it.

Carburettor icing a contributing factor? How does ATSB know if carburettor icing is a contributory factor of an accident? This is often difficult to answer because ice melts, it leaves no evidence. It is usually a case of elimination: if the engine is OK, there is plenty of fuel and all the controls are in the right place, then the investigators will look at weather conditions at the time. All we can usually say is that there was no other good reason for a loss of power. It always seems a shame to come across such a case, where everything was working fine, only to find that an aircraft has been downed for such an easily preventable phenomenon.

During a test flight, on short final approach, the aircraft encountered windshear. The engine failed to respond to throttle application. The aircraft landed heavily, ran into a fence and overturned.

Post-accident inspection of the engine did not reveal any mechanical reason for the lack of response to throttle application. Information from the Bureau of Meteorology showed that conditions were conducive to the formation of serious carburettor icing at any power setting. The pilot thought that because carby heat was only applied for about 10 seconds, carburettor ice was the only reasonable explanation for the loss of power.

Am I likely to experience carburettor icing? Provided with this article is a chart that will help you to work out the likelihood of experiencing icing, based on information from your forecast. You will need to find the temperature and dewpoint, and these can be found in a meteorological aviation report (METAR), or a SPECI, or a TTF type forecast. Plot the dew point depression against the temperature on the chart, and you will see an indication of the likelihood of experiencing carburettor icing.

Remember, note the air temperature: the most severe icing will occur at temperatures up to around 20 degrees Celsius, and the severity will decrease slowly as the temperature increases. The other major factor is the humidity in the air. If the air feels muggy, it is humid; if perspiration does not dry rapidly off your body, it is humid; if a breeze does not cool you on a warm day, it is humid.

When you are flying, remember that the air gets cooler with an increase in altitude, and this can increase the humidity. If you are flying near clouds, then the air is likely to be humid, (the relative humidity in a cloud is normally 100 per cent).

If you aren’t sure, check for carburettor icing by applying full carburettor heat for a short while, and checking for an increase in power after it is removed.

Prevent carburettor icing at the first indication, rather than leave it until the engine is choked by ice!

Source: https://www.atsb.gov.au/publications/2009/carburettor-icing/


European General Aviation Safety Team

PISTON ENGINE ICING
SAFETY PROMOTION LEAFLET

A leaflet that is intended to assist pilots of carburetted piston engined aircraft operating below 10,000 feet. Although it refers mainly to aeroplane operations, much also applies to other piston-engined aircraft such as helicopters.

Click here to download.

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